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Not to be confused with buckle. In science, buckling is a mathematical instability that leads to a failure mode. When a structure is subjected to compressive stress, buckling may occur. Buckling is characterized by a sudden sideways deflection of a structural member. This may occur even though the stresses that develop in the structure are well below those needed to cause failure of the material of which the structure is composed. In a mathematical sense, buckling is a bifurcation in the solution to the equations of static equilibrium.
The eccentricity of the axial force results in a bending moment acting on the beam element. This ratio affords a means of classifying columns and their failure mode. The slenderness ratio is important for design considerations. 50 to 200, and its behavior is dominated by the strength limit of the material, while a long steel column may be assumed to have a slenderness ratio greater than 200 and its behavior is dominated by the modulus of elasticity of the material. A short concrete column is one having a ratio of unsupported length to least dimension of the cross section equal to or less than 10. Timber columns may be classified as short columns if the ratio of the length to least dimension of the cross section is equal to or less than 10.
The dividing line between intermediate and long timber columns cannot be readily evaluated. One way of defining the lower limit of long timber columns would be to set it as the smallest value of the ratio of length to least cross sectional area that would just exceed a certain constant K of the material. The theory of the behavior of columns was investigated in 1757 by mathematician Leonhard Euler. He derived the formula, the Euler formula, that gives the maximum axial load that a long, slender, ideal column can carry without buckling. An ideal column is one that is perfectly straight, made of a homogeneous material, and free from initial stress. Examination of this formula reveals the following facts with regard to the load-bearing ability of slender columns.
The elasticity of the material of the column and not the compressive strength of the material of the column determines the column’s bucking load. The buckling load is directly proportional to the second moment of area of the cross section. The boundary conditions have a considerable effect on the critical load of slender columns. The boundary conditions determine the mode of bending of the column and the distance between inflection points on the displacement curve of the deflected column.
The inflection points in the deflection shape of the column are the points at which the curvature of the column changes sign and are also the points at which the column’s internal bending moments of the column are zero. A demonstration model illustrating the different “Euler” buckling modes. The model shows how the boundary conditions affect the critical load of a slender column. Notice that the columns are identical, apart from the boundary conditions. The latter can be done without increasing the weight of the column by distributing the material as far from the principal axis of the column’s cross section as possible. Another insight that may be gleaned from this equation is the effect of length on critical load. Doubling the unsupported length of the column quarters the allowable load.
The restraint offered by the end connections of a column also affects its critical load. Since structural columns are commonly of intermediate length, the Euler formula has little practical application for ordinary design. Consequently, a number of empirical column formulae have been developed that agree with test data, all of which embody the slenderness ratio. Fe is the Euler maximum load and Fc is the maximum compressive load. This formula typically produces a conservative estimate of Fmax. 3, which is equal to 1. 2: Elastic beam system showing buckling under tensile dead loading.
Usually buckling and instability are associated with compression, but buckling and instability can also occur in elastic structures subject to dead tensile load. An example of a single-degree-of-freedom structure is shown in Fig. 2, where the critical load is also indicated. Another example involving flexure of a structure made up of beam elements governed by the equation of the Euler’s elastica is shown in Fig. In both cases, there are no elements subject to compression. The two circular profiles can be arranged in a ‘S’-shaped profile, as shown in Fig. Note that the single-degree-of-freedom structure shown in Fig.
Watch a movie for more details. For instance, the so-called ‘Ziegler column’ is shown in Fig. The two rods, of linear mass density ρ, are rigid and connected through two rotational springs of stiffness k1 and k2. This two-degree-of-freedom system does not display a quasi-static buckling, but becomes dynamically unstable. 6: A sequence of deformed shapes at consecutive times intervals of the structure sketched in Fig. Flutter instability corresponds to a vibrational motion of increasing amplitude and is shown in Fig. Buckling is a state which defines a point where an equilibrium configuration becomes unstable under a parametric change of load and can manifest itself in several different phenomena.
All can be classified as forms of bifurcation. There are four basic forms of bifurcation associated with loss of structural stability or buckling in the case of structures with a single degree of freedom. In Euler buckling, when the applied load is increased by a small amount beyond the critical load, the structure deforms into a buckled configuration which is adjacent to the original configuration. For example, the Euler column pictured will start to bow when loaded slightly above its critical load, but will not suddenly collapse. In structures experiencing limit point instability, if the load is increased infinitesimally beyond the critical load, the structure undergoes a large deformation into a different stable configuration which is not adjacent to the original configuration.
A plate is a 3-dimensional structure defined as having a width of comparable size to its length, with a thickness is very small in comparison to its other two dimensions. From the derived equations, it can be seen the close similarities between the critical stress for a column and for a plate. This creates the preference of the plate to buckle in such a way to equal the number of curvatures both along the width and length. This is what allows the buckled structure to continue supporting loadings. When the axial load over the critical load is plotted against the displacement, the fundamental path is shown. It can be considered as a loaded column that has been bent into a circle. Railway tracks in the Netherlands affected by Sun kink.