Farther reaches of human nature pdf

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Please forward this error screen to sharedip-232292202. Maslow’s theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization and self-transcendence at the top. The most fundamental and basic four farther reaches of human nature pdf of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs.

The human brain is a complex system and has parallel processes running at the same time, thus many different motivations from various levels of Maslow’s hierarchy can occur at the same time. Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as “relative”, “general”, and “primarily”. Instead of stating that the individual focuses on a certain need at any given time, Maslow stated that a certain need “dominates” the human organism. Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. This is the first and basic need on the hierarchy of needs.

Without them, the other needs cannot follow up. Once a person’s physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. This need is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small.

For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, and online communities. Esteem needs are ego needs or status needs develop a concern with getting recognition, status, importance, and respect from others. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition.

Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a “lower” version and a “higher” version. The “lower” version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The “higher” version manifests itself as the need for self-respect.

Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the “hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated”. What a man can be, he must be. This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person’s full potential is and the realization of that potential.

Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be. Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically.

For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions. As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs, but master them. In his later years, Abraham Maslow explored a further dimension of needs, while criticizing his own vision on self-actualization. By this later theory, the self only finds its actualization in giving itself to some higher outside goal, in altruism and spirituality. He equated this with the desire to reach the infinite. Nurses can apply Maslow’s hierarchy of basic needs in the assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of patient care.

It helps the nurse identify unmet needs as they become health care needs, and allows the nurse to locate the patient on the health-illness continuum and to incorporate the human dimensions and health models into meeting needs. Breathing, circulation, temperature, intake of food and fluids, elimination of wastes, movement. Relationships with others, communications with others, support systems, being part of community, feeling loved by others. Hope, joy, curiosity, happiness, accepting Self. Thinking, learning, decision making, values, beliefs, fulfillment, helping others. All basic human needs are interrelated and may require nursing actions at more than one level at a given time.

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