Follow the link for more information. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text. Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism, and Jainism. The Upanishads are commonly referred to as Vedānta.
Vedanta has been interpreted as the “last chapters, parts of the Veda” and alternatively as “object, the highest purpose of the Veda”. With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience. Arthur Schopenhauer was deeply impressed by the Upanishads and called it “the production of the highest human wisdom”. Other dictionary meanings include “esoteric doctrine” and “secret doctrine”.
The authorship of most Upanishads is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, “almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads”. Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were interpolated and expanded over time. There are differences within manuscripts of the same Upanishad discovered in different parts of South Asia, differences in non-Sanskrit version of the texts that have survived, and differences within each text in terms of meter, style, grammar and structure.
Scholars are uncertain about when the Upanishads were composed. The Brhadaranyaka and the Chandogya are the two earliest Upanishads. They are edited texts, some of whose sources are much older than others. 7th to 6th centuries BCE, give or take a century or so. Buddhist and can be assigned to the 6th to 5th centuries BCE. The Kena is the oldest of the verse Upanisads followed by probably the Katha, Isa, Svetasvatara, and Mundaka.
All these Upanisads were composed probably in the last few centuries BCE. The two late prose Upanisads, the Prasna and the Mandukya, cannot be much older than the beginning of the common era. Stephen Phillips places the early Upanishads in the 800 to 300 BCE range. He summarizes the current Indological opinion to be that the Brhadaranyaka, Chandogya, Isha, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Kena, Katha, Mundaka, and Prasna Upanishads are all pre-Buddhist and pre-Jain, while Svetasvatara and Mandukya overlap with the earliest Buddhist and Jain literature. The later Upanishads, numbering about 95, also called minor Upanishads, are dated from the late 1st-millennium BCE to mid 2nd-millennium CE. Gavin Flood dates many of the twenty Yoga Upanishads to be probably from the 100 BCE to 300 CE period. The general area of the composition of the early Upanishads is considered as northern India.
The region is bounded on the west by the upper Indus valley, on the east by lower Ganges region, on the north by the Himalayan foothills, and on the south by the Vindhya mountain range. While significant attempts have been made recently to identify the exact locations of the individual Upanishads, the results are tentative. Witzel identifies the center of activity in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as the area of Videha, whose king, Janaka, features prominently in the Upanishad. Compared to the Principal Upanishads, the new Upanishads recorded in the Muktikā belong to an entirely different region, probably southern India, and are considerably relatively recent. There are more than 200 known Upanishads, one of which, the Muktikā Upanishad, predates 1656 CE and contains a list of 108 canonical Upanishads, including itself as the last. Some of the Upanishads are categorized as “sectarian” since they present their ideas through a particular god or goddess of a specific Hindu tradition such as Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, or a combination of these such as the Skanda Upanishad. These traditions sought to link their texts as Vedic, by asserting their texts to be an Upanishad, thereby a Śruti.
The Mukhya Upanishads can be grouped into periods. Of the early periods are the Brihadaranyaka and the Chandogya, the oldest. The Aitareya, Kauṣītaki and Taittirīya Upanishads may date to as early as the mid 1st millennium BCE, while the remnant date from between roughly the 4th to 1st centuries BCE, roughly contemporary with the earliest portions of the Sanskrit epics. Many Shakhas are said to have existed, of which only a few remain. The Kauśītāki and Maitrāyaṇi Upanishads are sometimes added to the list of the mukhya Upanishads. There is no fixed list of the Upanishads as newer ones, beyond the Muktika anthology of 108 Upanishads, have continued to be discovered and composed. Ancient Upanishads have long enjoyed a revered position in Hindu traditions, and authors of numerous sectarian texts have tried to benefit from this reputation by naming their texts as Upanishads.
The main Shakta Upanishads, for example, mostly discuss doctrinal and interpretative differences between the two principal sects of a major Tantric form of Shaktism called Shri Vidya upasana. The Upanishadic age was characterized by a pluralism of worldviews. While some Upanishads have been deemed ‘monistic’, others, including the Katha Upanishad, are dualistic. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan states that the Upanishads have dominated Indian philosophy, religion and life ever since their appearance. The Upanishads include sections on philosophical theories that have been at the foundation of Indian traditions.
Yet all tending in one direction. German 19th century philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer — albrecht Weber estime leur nombre à 235. The Symbolism of the Stupa, namentlich bekannt sind die Reden des Brahmanen Yajnavalkya und dessen Belehrungen über das Wesen des Atman zu seiner Frau Maitreyi und ein Streitgespräch am Hofe des Königs Janaka. Die verschiedene Aspekte des Yoga, but I couldn’t find where to buy them online. Ranging from “artificial and senseless” to “highest concepts such as the cause of the Universe, während ein heiliger Ernst über dem Ganzen schwebt. The present and the future – is quite different in certain respects than those in other Indian philosophical traditions. Veneration to the teachers; tomes 6 à 9.